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章節1-1 句子的形成

  • 句子的基本架構
  1. 任何一個句子一定由主詞動詞形成。
    a.John works hard.
           S        V
    b.He plays the piano well.
        S      V
     
  2. 有時候主詞可以省略,而形成命令句,而這種命令句句首為原形動詞,之前省略了 (You should)。
    a.Work hard. = (You should) work hard.
         原V
    b.Be quite. = (You should) be quite.
     
  3. 命令句變成否定形態時,前面加( Don't )。
    a.Don't be silly.
    (別傻了。)
    b.Don't fool around.
    (別游手好閒。)
  • 可作主詞的詞類

    一般句構中,通常是以名詞做主詞,但除了名詞以外,還可以用代名詞動名詞不定詞片語名詞子句名詞片語表距離的地方副詞片語等作主詞。
  1. 名詞作主詞:
    a.The child is apt to tell lies.
    (這孩子喜歡說謊。)
    b.Glod is of much value.
    (黃金很值錢。)
     
  2. 代名詞作主詞:
    a.He always keeps his promise.
    (牠總是信守承諾。)
    b.It is a lot of fun to climb mountains.
    (爬山蠻好玩的。)
     
  3. 動名詞或不定詞作主詞:

    動詞絕對不能當主詞,一定要變成動名詞不定詞片語,才能視為名詞的對等與語,作主詞用。
    a.See him makes me angry. ( X )
       Seeing him makes me angry. ( O )
    b. See him is my purpose of coming here. ( X )
       To See him is my purpose of coming here. ( O ) 

    動名詞作主詞-通常用以表示已知的事實曾經做過的經驗
    a.Collecting stamps is one of his hobbies.
    (集郵是他的嗜好之一。)
    這裡的「集郵」是一種經驗,固應用動名詞片語 Collesting stamps.
    b.Listening to music makes me happy.
    (聽音樂使我開心。)
    這裡的「聽音樂」是曾經做過的事,固應用動名詞片語 Listening to music.

    不定詞作主詞-通常表示一種意願目的未完成的事情
    a.To study abroad is my greatest desire.
    (出國讀書是我最大的願望。)
    由「願望」一詞得知出國讀書,表示一種意願或尚未做的事情,固應用不定詞 To study.
    b.To go to Japan for a visit is my plan for this year.
    (去日本遊玩是我今年的計劃。)
    由「計畫」一詞得知去日本玩,表示一種尚未做的事情,固應用不定詞 To go to Japan for a visit.

    由於不定詞動名詞當主詞的時候,容易造成主詞過長的現象發生,可以用 It 虛主詞放句首,再將真主詞移置句尾
    (※動名詞由句首移置句尾,通常改成不定詞)。
    a.Collecting stamps is one of his hobbies.
    = It is one of his hobbies to collect stamps.

    例外情形- It is no use + 動名詞片語
    a. It is no use asking him for help.
    (向他求救是沒有用的。)
    ※ It is no use + 動名詞片語
    = It is useless + 不定詞片語
    = It is of no use + 不定詞片語
    = There is no | use、sense、point | + in + 動名詞片語

  4. 名詞子句作主詞:
    例:(他不讀書令我生氣。)
    這個句子的主詞雖然是「他不讀書」,但若翻譯成He doesn't study.( X ),則大錯特錯!
    因為He doesn't study 是句子,所謂句子就是一開始就是主詞的句構,而句子絕不能當主詞一定要改成名詞子句才能當主詞用
    故本句正確譯法為:That he doesn't study makes me angry.

    名詞子句的種類:
    (1) that 子句
         任何一個主詞起首的句子,前面冠that,即成that子句。
         例1: He doesn't beleive my words. (句子)
         →that he doesn't believe my words. (名詞子句)
         例2: He enjoys dancing. (句子)
         →that he enjoys dancing. (名詞子句)

    (2) whether 子句
         本子句是可用yes/no回答的問句變化而成,這種可用yes/no回答的問句稱為一般疑問句。

         a)問句有be動詞時:
            主詞與be動詞還原,前面冠以whether。
            例: Is he happy ?
            →whether he is happy

         b)問句有一般助動詞( can、will、may、should、ought to、must、have ) 時:
            主詞與助動詞還原,前面冠以whether。
            例: Can he do it ?
            →whether he can do it

         c)問句有do、does、did等助動詞時:
            主詞與助動詞還原,再將do、does、did去掉,後面的動詞依人稱時態變化。
            例1: Did he come?
            →whether he did came

            例2: Does he like it ?
            →whether he does likes it

    (3)疑問詞所引導的子句
         本子句由疑問詞(when、what、how、where、why)等引導的問句變化而成,這種由疑問詞
         引導的問句稱為特殊疑問句。
        
    a)問句有be動詞時:
            主詞與be動詞還原,前面保留疑問詞。
            例: What is he doing ? (問句)
            →what he is doing  (名詞子句)

         b)問具有一般助動詞時:
            主詞與助動詞還原,前面保留疑問詞。
            例: Where can he find it ? (問句)
            →where he can find it (名詞子句)

         c)問句有do、does、did等助動詞時:

            主詞與助動詞還原,前面保留疑問詞,再將do、does、did刪掉,動詞依人稱和時態變化。
            例: What did he write ? (問句)
            →what he did wrote (名詞子句)
                ( did 為過去式,固write改為worte ) 

         d)who、what、which( 哪一個 ) 為疑問代名詞,若在問句中做主詞,變成名詞子句,結構不變。
            例: Who came here ? (問句)
            →who came here (名詞子句)

  5. 名詞子句的功能:
    名詞子句乃由句子或問句變化而成,和動名詞或不定詞一樣,名詞子句也被視為名詞。由於具有名詞特性,故可做主詞受詞be動詞之後作主詞補語

    (1)名詞子句做主詞:
    例1. Where he lives is still in doubt.
    (他住哪裡能仍不確定)
    例2. Whether he can do it remains to be seen.
    (他能勝任與否仍有待觀察)

    (2)名詞子句作及物動詞的受詞:
    例1. I know
    that he will go abroad in the near future.
                  vt.                                     o.
            ( 我知道他最近即將出國。)
    例2. I wonder whether he has finished the work.
                  vt.                                     o.
            ( 我想知道他是否已完成工作。) 

    (3)名詞子句做介系詞的受詞:
         a)此時僅能用whether子句或疑問詞引導的名詞子句做受詞。that子句不能做介系詞受詞。
            例1. I am worried about whether he can do it.
           
    ( 我很擔心他是否能做這件事情。)
           
    例2. I'm curious about how he'll cope with the problem.
           
    (我很好奇他如何應付這個問題。) 
        
         b)遇到介係詞且非歹使用that 時的補救辦法:  
            
    (b1.)介係詞+the fact+that子句→這方法就是將 the fact 當成介係詞的受詞,然後 that 子句就能變成the fact 的同位語。
                    
    例1. I am sure of the fact that the team has won the game.
                                             prep.   o.                     同位語

            
    (b2.)保留介係詞,不加 the fact,但介係詞之後的 that 子句需做下列調整。
                     第一步: 除去 that。
                     第二步: that 後的主詞變成所有格。
                     第三步: 動詞變成動名詞。
                     例1. I am worried about that he plays around all day.
                     → I am worried about that his playing around all day.
                     (我為他整天遊手好閒而擔心。)
                     ※注意 that 子句若有助動詞do、does、did、will、would
    時,去掉即可。
                     例1. I am worried about that he doesn't study.

                     → I am worried about that his does not studying.
                    
    (我很擔心他不念書。)
                     
              (b3.)子句若有以下助動詞時,做下列變化:
                      may → be likely to
                      can  → be able to
                      再將be動詞變成動名詞being。
                      例1. I am happy about that he may come. ( X )
                      → I am happy about that his being likely to come.
                      例2. I am sure of that he can do it. ( X )
                      → I am sure of that his being able to do it.
              
               (b4.)be+adj.+that 子句:
    就是去掉介系詞,將 that 子句放在形容詞後面,使 that 子句成為副詞子句,修飾該形容詞。
                       
    例1. I am worried about that he plays around all day.
                       → I am worried  that he plays around all day.
                       ※注意 that 子句若置形容詞之後,則視為修飾形容詞,由於修是形容詞的詞句均視為副詞(如: very happy、so good),因此凡置於形容詞之後的 that 子句,均視為副詞子句,而非名詞子句。
               
                (b5.)有時介係詞之後也可以接 that 子句,而不需 the fact,形成慣用語。
                        1. in that = because  因為
                             例: He is talented in that he can speak five different languages.
                             (他很有才華,因為他能說五種語言。)
                         2. except that   只可惜、除了....

                             例: He is nice expect that sometimes he lies.
                             (他人很好,只可惜有時候會說謊。)
                         3. notwithstanding that  儘管
                             = despite the fact that
                             = in spite of the fact that
                             例:Notwithstanding that he is nice, I don't like him.
                             = Despite the fact that he is nice, I don't like him.
                             = In spite of the fact that he is nice, I don't like him.

  6. 名詞片語做主詞:
    名詞片語是由「疑問詞+不定詞片語」形成。
    a)疑問詞
       where to live                     住哪裡
       whether to try again        是否再是一次
       when to talk to him          什麼時候和他談
    b)疑問代名詞
       what to do                         做什麼
       whom to see                    看誰
       which to buy                     買什麼

     
  7. 表距離的地方副詞片語做主詞:
     from+地方名詞+to+地方名詞
     此為表距離的地方副詞片語,亦可做主詞,與單數的be動詞並用。
     例: From Taipei to Taichung is about 160 kilometers.
     (從台北到台中大約160公里)

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